The same Ministry of Foreign Affairs has been troubled for a long time by its inability to behave coherently due to the presence of a «cacophony of voices», i.e. This was reflected in changes to the foreign policy leadership team at the CCP’s National Congress in November 2017 and the National People’s Congress session in March 2018. The key element of this process was the reform of the Chinese decision-making system, which included both the reorganization of institution building and the amendment of the former procedures of foreign policy decision-making. 124. The work conference in June was the second under Xi’s leadership, while his predecessors Jiang Zemin and Hu Jintao had only held one each. Xuan Loc Doan, ‘China’s contradictions over the Korean Peninsula Issue’, Asia Times, 16 May 2018. 商务部新闻办公室 (Ministry of Commerce Press Office), ‘商务部新闻发言人 就美国对340亿美元中国产品加征关税发表谈话’ (‘Ministry of Commerce spokesper-son speaks on US tariffs on US$ 34 billion in Chinese products’), 6 July 2018. and China Call Truce in Trade War’, The New York Times, 1 December 2018. These visits marked the end of years of speculation concerning the state of the brotherhood alliance between the two countries, and Beijing’s weak grip on its ally. This book provides a unique perspective to understand Chinese foreign policy during this decade by examining continuities and changes in both internal and external factors that have shaped China's … 91. According to specialists and observers, this provided the rationale for Meng Wanzhou’s arrest. "The Internet and social media’s arrival in the region have led to unprecedented levels of grassroots activism across societies.". 11. 121.  At the same time Xi expressed China’s willingness «to continue to work with all relevant parties and play an active role in comprehensively advancing the process of peaceful resolution of the peninsula issue through dialogue, and realizing long-term peace and stability in the region». 30. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=NnVYlp2elLo. As a result, China's foreign policy has become more active and dynamic. The tycoon-funded vaccine drive demonstrates the durability of the patronage state that Hun Sen has built since the 1980s. ‘Burkina Faso cuts diplomatic ties with Taiwan after intense pres- sure from China’, The Telegraph, 24 May 2018. In foreign policy the «Chinese characteristics» refer to China’s ambition to shape the global order according to its national interests. 45.  Rather, China had sought an intensification and broader institutionalization of the Group, while welcoming the interest expressed by Austria and Greece (16+1 observers) to full membership of the format. He coined new concepts such as the “community of a shared destiny for humankind,” and his administration even managed to insert this language into several UN documents. The new agricultural reforms are a necessity for Indian farmers; the Modi government, however, must do more to ally their fears. Since then the concept has been widely disseminated in official statements, becoming an integral part of the political ideology of Xi Jinping. 70.  It concluded with Abe Shinzo’s visit to China at the end of October, the first formal bilateral visit by a Japanese leader to the country in nearly seven years. 5. On 5 December, Portugal joined the list of European countries to sign such a memorandum. 31. infrastructure, high technology, and green technologies, all key issues within the BRI. This is why some countries have actively resisted China’s calls for them to sign BRI MoUs, while simultaneously trying to work with Beijing to improve the debt sustainability of the Initiative and ensure it meets international standards. ‘中央外事工作会议在京举行’ (‘The Central Conference on Work Relating to Foreign Affairs was Held in Beijing’), 人民日报 (People’s Daily), 30 November 2014. At the same time many countries pursued bilateral trade deals; among them China accelerated FTA talks with the EU, New Zealand, while Japan signed a trade agreement with the EU. ‘Worried Nato partners wonder if Atlantic alliance can survive Trump’, The Guardian, 8 July 2018. The "Cesare Bonacossa" Centre for the Study of Extra-European Peoples, The Journal of the Italian Think Tank on Asia founded by Giorgio Borsa in 1989 China's foreign policy today is summarized as strategic relations with neighboring countries and the world's superpowers to strive for China's national interest, and to create a favorable environment for China's domestic development for perpetual competition in the world in the long-run. 14. Among these last, four are recognized as candidates to membership (Albania, Macedonia, Montenegro, and Serbia), while Bosnia and Herzegovina is officially recognized as potential candidate, Sarajevo having submitted a membership application. So far it has signed 17 FTAs with 25 countries and regions and is in talks over 12 new or upgraded FTA deals. Except for one country’, The Washington Post, 3 September 2018. 95. Chinese attitudes toward immigration are growing more diverse, with many remaining neutral or positive despite alarming headlines. There are zero warm feelings between the two countries». The first two trips were both «unofficial» and followed the tradition of China state media placing a moratorium on the announcement until the Democratic People’s Republic of Korea (DPRK) leader was on his way home. For these reasons, since its formal inclusion in the SCO there has been an intense debate among observers mainly focused on doubts relating to India’s readiness to join the Organization while jointly safeguarding Western interests, as well as the kind of contribution New Delhi might make to it.. In particular, the 2018 Beijing Summit of the Forum on China-Africa Cooperation (FOCAC) gave China the opportunity to sign Memorandum of Understandings (MoUs) with 37 African countries (and the African Union), which, according to Xia Qing, an official with the National Development and Reform Commission (NDRC), accounted for 70 percent of the 53 African nations attending the summit. Bartosz Kowalski, ‘What’s Next for the China-CEE 16+1 Platform?’, The Diplomat, 13 July 2018. Thomas Eder, ‘China’s New Foreign Policy Setup’, The Diplomat, 1 August. 1 3 September 2018 Indonesian Foreign Policy: The China Factor Lindsay Hughes Research Analyst Indian Ocean Research Programme Summary Formal Sino-Indonesian diplomatic relations were established on 13 April 1950. In 2018, China’s foreign relations were dominated by the centralization of its foreign policy-making, designed to strengthen the hold of the Chinese Communist Party and the Chinese president himself on the decision-making system.  Put another way, considering the long history of scepticism and tension between the two sides, they could be considered at least «partners of convenience». This article argues that the key question is whether China is about to change its approach to foreign policy, one which has enabled its “peaceful rise” in recent decades. Kim and his wife were «treated lavishly and showered with luxury gifts» by Xi Jinping (including expensive alcohol banned under UN sanctions). 288-290. Wang Cong, ‘Chaos caused by US trade aggression spurs faster regional FTA talks’. 58. Before he disappeared from his luxury apartment at the Four Seasons Hotel in Hong Kong on … Related to Trump’s aggressive stance on trade was the Japanese prime minister’s more convincing rapprochement to China, after the timid gestures in 2017. 24. Competition With China Could Be Short and Sharp. This was reflected in changes to the foreign policy leadership team at the CCP’s National Congress in November 2017 and the National People’s Congress session in March 2018. The Belt and Road Initiative on its 5th anniversary. The second event regarded the PRC’s troubled relations with the United States of America. 52. The current debate on the question of whether China has become more assertive involves two opposing opinions on Beijing’s foreign policy orientation. ‘Japan and China agree on security hotline after a decade of talks’, CNBC, 9 May 2018. All three events demonstrated China’s growing assertiveness and confirmed its central role on the international scene, with special reference to Asia and Africa. The vision of China’s central role in the world is matched by Xi’s central role in foreign policymaking. North Korea’s best friend had snubbed it for its most bitter rival.. This became clear at the high-level Central Conference on Work relating to Foreign Affairs on June 22 and 23, 2018. On the one hand it contributed to the thawing in relations between China and Japan, while at the same time facilitated the revival of the trilateral negotiations for a Free Trade Agreement (FTA) between China, Japan and South Korea. On paper, the main achievement of the summit was a Chinese agreement that the World Trade Organization had to be reformed if it was to survive the «Trumpian times».  That statement became part of Washington’s constant criticism of NATO’s European allies for not spending enough on defense. By Taboola. As a result, China's foreign policy has become more active and dynamic. ‘Chinese president to address opening ceremony of 2018 Boao Forum’, Xinhuanet, 3 April 2018. It was preceded by the revival of the trilateral negotiations for a Free Trade Agreement (FTA) between China, Japan and South Korea. 9. The Government’s Statement of Foreign Policy 2018 Published 14 February 2018. Most probably the Chinese leadership had reached its decision to issue the invitation at the beginning of March after the surprise announcement that the US president would meet Kim Jong Un to discuss Pyongyang denuclearization; Beijing risked possible marginalization in what were likely to be historical talks. During the speech Xi announced that China would implement eight major initiatives with African countries in the following three years and beyond, covering fields such as industrial promotion, infrastructure connectivity, trade facilities, and green development, in an evident attempt to rebrand China’s policy in Africa, and definitively dispel the accusation of neocolonialism.. Lili Kuo, ‘Xi Jinping: president warns other nations not to «dictate» to Chi- na’, The Guardian, 18 December 2018. Mark Landler, ‘U.S. Remarks by Vice President Pence on the Administration’s Policy Toward China. Shannon Tiezzi, ‘FOCAC 2018: Rebranding China in Africa’, The Diplomat, 5 September 2018. In 2018, as China’s Belt and Road Initiative turned five years old, it continued to develop and become more widespread and to growing criticism. During those five years, the BRI has experienced a great evolution, from an initiative solely focused on infrastructure to one which also includes industry, technology, cultural, legal and environmental components. At the closing of the period under review, all the pieces of the puzzle appeared to be in the right place, and China was in a position to declare, without hesitation, that no-one could afford to dictate to the Chinese people what should or should not be done, as Xi Jinping opined at the conference celebrating the 40th anniversary of the reform and opening-up, on 18 December.  Moreover, in the majority of cases those projects did not respect EU rules and standards for building large-scale infrastructures, from transportation to energy and communications.  As reported by Hu Xujing, editor in chief of the Chinese and English editions of the Global Times, the US was trying to find a way to attack Huawei and destroy its reputation. The region will remain on the Chinese radar for the foreseeable future. 65. The consequences for China-EU relations. 123. HR & Staffing. 16. Abe reported that the Japan-China relationship had «return to normal track». Furthermore, they have the potential to derail China’s carefully-laid long term plans for achieving its national «dream». 35. In this regard, according to Lankov, Kim Jong Un was turning out to be a «very good diplomat». This is part 1. The sanctions blocked the EDD and his director from applying for export licenses and participating in the US financial system. Charlotte Gao, ‘2018: China Vows to Be the Keeper of International Order’, The Diplomat, 2 January 2018. Finally, its inclusion in the party constitution confirmed its status as a long-term project, much like Deng Xiaoping’s «reform and opening-up» policy. In 2014, Xi’s first visit to the Korean Peninsula as the PRC’s president had been to Seoul, not Pyongyang. Remarks by Vice President Pence on the Administration’s Policy Toward China. Xi Jinping has put the world on notice that China intends to be an active global player. Author: Sebastien Peyrouse, GWU. The 7th Forum on China-Africa Cooperation, The 7th Forum on China-Africa Cooperation (FOCAC) opened in Beijing on 3 September at the Great Hall of the People with a keynote speech delivered by the Chinese president, entitled significantly «Work Together for Common Development and a Shared Future» (合作共赢携手构建更加紧 密的中非命运共同体). 113. By Teng Jing Xuan. Accordingly, Washington launched what the Chinese Ministry of Commerce considered as the «largest trade war in economic history» (经 济史上规模最大的贸易战). Japan was aware that despite the security concerns, the country’s return to economic growth had been in part fueled by the Chinese economy’s growth, and that any sustained economic growth in Japan would necessarily include more, not less, trade and engagement with China. It is useful to underline that the Central Leading Small Group on Foreign Affairs was set up in its present form at the beginning of the 1980s with the precise goal of coordinating China’s often disjointed foreign policy. The enemy of my enemy is my friend. China retaliated in kind, imposing tariffs on items worth US$ 110 billion. ... China’s foreign economic policies have China emerged as a major economic, diplomatic, and military power during the critical decade from 2008 to 2018. Interestingly, concern for the global economy caused by the unilateral US trade moves, especially its growing protectionist measures and trade aggression, favoured the revival of the long-stalled China-Japan-South Korea FTA talks, as well as improving relations between Beijing and Tokyo. , The main reason for the postponement resided in the fact that Beijing remained unmoved by the loud calls from Berlin, Brussels and Paris to tone down its 16+1 activities. 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